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Reading Material

Two bibliographies are presented. The first reflects those books that were most useful in preparing content for the database. The books tend to be relatively new and available at places like the History Museum. The second bibliography is that contained in Volume II of the Preservation Plan for St. Louis. Prepared in 1995 by former staff member Dan Krasnoff, it may be of interest more to scholars than average citizens.

20 Years Too Soon: Prelude to Major League Integrated Baseball, Quincy Trouppe, printed by Quincy Trouppe in 1977, and reprinted by the Missouri Historical Society Press, 1995.

This is the story of a man who started with the St. Louis Stars in 1931 and played baseball in the Negro National Baseball League for the next twenty years until joining the Cleveland Indians in 1952. In all but a few of those years he played in the annual all star games. Trouppe was the first African American scout for the St. Louis Cardinals, and suffered the frustration of seeing too many great minority baseball players fail to get hired.

Ain’t But a Place: An Anthology of African American Writings about St. Louis, edited by Gerald Early, Missouri Historical Society Press, 1998.

This is the single best overview of African American impressions of St. Louis edited by one of Washington Universities best know professors. More than 500 pages are devoted to excerpts from more than 50individuals, organized into three broad categories: Autobiographies and Memoirs, Historical and Cultural Documents, Essays and Articles, and Fiction and Poetry.

The Architectural Heritage of St. Louis, 1803-1891: From the Louisiana Purchase to the Wainwright Building, Lawrence Lowic, Washington University Gallery of Art, St. Louis, MO; 1982.

This is an important look at individual buildings in the context of 19th century St. Louis. Five major sections characterize the book: The French City in 1804; Americanization: 1804 - 1840; the Neoclassical City: 1850-1860; The Italianate City: 1850-1860; and The Post-Bellum City: 1865-1891. There is an Epilogue, and a detailed set of Bibliographical Notes. Lowic’s scholarly book is impressively illustrated with sketches, photography, maps and related graphics.

Discovering African-American St. Louis: A Guide to Historical Sites, John Wright, Missouri Historical Society Press, 1994.

This is an important book, supported, illustrated and edited with help from both the Public Library and the Historical Society. For each of14 geographic areas in the region (ranging from Downtown to Alton), the author describes site after site that was prominent previously, or is important today, to the lives of African Americans in St. Louis. Each entry has an address and a number that corresponds to an easily read map. The book also contains a useful guide to further research, a bibliography and an index.

In Her Place: A Guide to St. Louis Women’s History. Katherine T. Corbett, Missouri Historical Society Press, 1999.

This is a detailed profile of individual women who made their mark on St. Louis, and a description of organizations and topics relevant to women‚ and their lives. The book is divided into 8 chapters: Colonial Women; Women on the Frontier; Women at the Gateway to the West; St. Louis Women and the Civil War; Women in the Industrializing City; Progressive Era Women; and Changing Places. The last chapter, Women and Postwar St. Louis, 1945 -1965, is by Ann Valk. A good index, maps, photos and illustrations all contribute to a major contribution to St. Louis History.

Literary St. Louis: A Guide, edited by Lorin Cuoco andWilliam H. Gass,

Missouri Historical Society Press. 2000.

This is a product of the International Writers Center at Washington University, founded in 1990. Fifty authors who spent time in St. Louis are described in 4 to 6 pages, typically with excerpts of their work. The book is amply illustrated with photographs and sketches. Writers are described in terms of downtown, central west end, university city and outer limits. There is a St. Louis Literary Chronology, selected maps and a locations list that shows there writers lived at different points in time.

Lion of the Valley, St. Louis, Missouri, 1764 - 1980, ThirdEdition, James Neal Primm, Missouri Historical Society Press,1998.

This is probably the best known modern single volume history of St. Louis. Professor Primm is an emeritus professor at the University of Missouri- St. Louis where he taught for many years. He published the first edition of the book in 1981. The current version in fact covers most of the1980s, but only a limited amount of the 1990s. While lacking footnotes, there are detailed Notes on Sources for each chapter, as well as an index.

Missouri’s Black Heritage, Lorenzo J.Greene, GaryR. Kremer, and Antonio F. Holland. University of Missouri Press,1980, revised in 1993.

This book covers a long time period for the whole state; however, because so much of the African-American experience in Missouri relates to St. Louis, it is a valuable book. There are a considerable number of photographs, and each of the 12 chapters finishes with suggested readings. An appendix lists African American members who served in the Missouri legislature.

Seeing St. Louis, Barringer Fifield, Herb Weitman (photographs),Washington University Campus Stores, 1987.

This guide book consists of 14 tours around the city, illustrated with maps and photographs. The author provides insight into the architectural and historical significance of each geographic area.

St. Louis, edited by Selwyn K Troen and Glen E. Holt, NewViewpoints, A

Division of Franklin Watts, New York, London, 1977.

This is one in a series of documentary histories of American Cities. Approximately 68 reports, manuscripts and newspaper articles are quoted in three broad time periods (1763 -1830; 1830 -1910; 1910 -1975).The first is an excerpt of Auguste Choteau’s history of the trip up river to found St, Louis (he was 13 at the time) and the last are Post Dispatch articles about the significance oft he ARCH. With a introduction to the city overall, and to each of the entries, this is strong complement to any history of the city.

St. Louis, A Concise History, William Barnaby Faherty,St. Louis Convention and Visitors Bureau, 1990.

This short book (139 pages) is a quick way to understand the key events in St. Louis history. Mr. Faherty is a retired professor of history from St. Louis University. Ni Ni Harris provided assistance. The book was dedicated to the 25 anniversary of the building of the Jefferson National Expansion Authority.

St. Louis: Historic Churches and Synagogues, Mary Stiritz, with assistance from Cynthia Hll LOngwisch, Carolyn Hewes Toft,and Jean Meeh Gosebrink, Landmarks Association and St. Louis Public Library, 1995.

This is a comprehensive overview of churches and synagogues that grew out of a 1990 survey of 350 sites in the city. The history and architecture of 77 institutions is described with supporting photography and sketches. there is a master list of all churches surveyed with their original denomination, address and date. A bibliography is presented, organized by denomination. A map locates each structure.

St. Louis: Landmarks and Historic Districts, Carolyn Hewes Toft, with Lynn Josse, Landmarks Association of St. Louis, 2002.

This is a great guide to the best of the built environment in St. Louis. The revised version is organized similarly to the 1988edition with 10 chapters focusing on different parts of the city, and an 11th chapter entitled In Memoriam. However, the new edition contains about 50 more pages, and an even richer array of photographs, sketches and maps. There is also a detailed index.

St. Louis Lost: Uncovering the City’s Lost Architectural Treasures, Mary Bartley, Virginia Publishing, 1994.

This is a welcome addition to the literature that focuses on buildings that have been demolished. In the author’s words, "The book is not intended to be a complete listing of all that have been lost, and it is not an architectural textbook. It is a plea for better urban planning, serious consideration of the value of our historic structures and sites, and reevaluation of our collective definition of progress."

The St. Louis Irish, An Unmatched Celtic Community. William Barnably Faherty, SJ, Missouri Historical Press; distributed by the University of Missouri Press, 2001.

Professor William Barnaby Faherty, Emeritus in History, St. Louis University is director of the Museum of Western Jesuit Missions and an Archivist of the Midwest Jesuit Archives. He has written more than 20 books on aspects of St. Louis History. The impact of the Irish on St. Louis is described in 33 chapters with detailed end notes and an index.

St. Louis Politics - The Triumph of Tradition, Lana Stein, Missouri Historical Society Press, Distributed by University of Missouri, 2002.

Anyone interested in the politics of St. Louis during the 20thcentury will want to read this book. As the author states in her preface ‚Ä ú this political history illustrates the importance of institutions and political culture, which combine with economics and demographics to shape a city. Her research includes "close to two hundred" interviews with participants and observers of the political scene.

Streets of St. Louis: A History of St. Louis Street Names, William B and Marcella C. Magnan. Virginia Publishing, 1994, Revised 1997.

This is a must have book for those interested in St. Louis trivia. Mr. Magnan served as a postal carrier for 33 years, and he clearly knows his streets. In addition to the 15 chapters, there are appendixes dealing with the names of states, Missouri governors and mayor, schools, and "miscellaneous vignettes." There is also a detailed street index.



The works listed here were written from the middle 19th century through the middle 20th century. While they are not written specifically about architecture, they all contain accounts of St. Louis buildings.

Billon, Frederick, Annals of St. Louis in its Territorial Days, 2 Vols. Louis: Frederick Billon, 1886.

This work describes St. Louis in the late 18th and early 19th century. While it was not written at the time, its age, and the fact that people were still living with early memories of the town make it a valuable source.

Curzon, Julian, The Great Cyclone at St. Louis and East St. Louis.

St. Louis: Cyclone Publishing, 1896.

This specialized book deals exclusively with the tornado of 1896 that cut a path through the near south side, doing particular damage to structures in Lafayette Square. There are numerous photos and illustrations of the City.

Darby, John F., Personal Reflections. St. Louis: G.I. Jones and Co., 1880.

John Darby served two terms as Mayor of St. Louis in the 1840's. His book gives a first hand account of what daily life was like for a leading citizen of the City in the middle 19th century. Discussions of specific neighborhoods help bring the 19th century city to life.

Dacus, J.A., A Town of St. Louis, or, The Inside Life of a Great

City. St. Louis: St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 1878.

A popular book format about cities during the late 19th century discussed both the genteel society of the well to do, and the perceived moral corruption that occurred in city slums. This book details such circumstances in St. Louis, and provides a vivid picture of the physical development of the city.

The Missouri Republican, Thoughts About St. Louis. St. Louis: The

Missouri Republican, 1854.

This work is a promotional document, designed to boost interest in the accomplishments of St. Louis during the middle 19th century.

William Hyde and Howard Conrad, Eds., Encyclopedia of the History of St. Louis: A Compendium and Ready Reference, 4 Vols. St. Louis: Southern History Co., 1899. Reavis, L.U., St. Louis: The Future Great City of the Western World. St. Louis: Gray Baker and Co., 1875.

Scharf, Thomas, History of St. Louis: From Its Earliest Period to

the Present Day, 2 Vols. Philadelphia: Louis Events and Co., 1883.

These three works are histories of the City. The authors were City boosters, and reflect a bias towards the City, and some flawed research. However, they do contain large amounts of information about the development of St. Louis.


Baer, Howard F., St. Louis to Me: Footnotes on 50 Years. St. Louis:

Hawthorne Pubhshing, 1978.

Howard Baer was active in the political, civic and cultural life of St. Louis for a good part of the 20th century. This work contains his perspective on the challenges St. Louis has had in the middle 20th century. Particularly slum clearance and downtown redevelopment.

Picturesque St. Louis: Some of its Distinguished and Its Magnificent Outer Parts. St. Louis: The Finkenbinder-Reid Printing Co., 1909.

This work is of the promotional variety. It contains many excellent photographs of the St. Louis' environment at the beginning of the 20th century.

Stevens, Walter. St. Louis: The Fourth City. St. Louis: SJ. Clark Printing Co., 1909.

This history is similar to those written at the end of the 19th century by

Reavis and Scharf.

Wells, Rolla, Episodes of My Life. St. Louis: Rolla Wells, 1933.

Rolla Wells was Mayor of St. Louis during the early 20th century. He was the son of Erastus Wells, who was prominent in St. Louis as the chief operator of the City's complex transit system, and as an Alderman and Congressman. The book provides information about the life of the city during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.


These works relate specifically to the buildings of St. Louis. Their subjects vary greatly, but they all provide material about specific aspects of the City’s physical development.


Barnett, George I., Examples from the Recent Work of Barnett, Haynes and Barnett, Architects. St. Louis: I. Hass, Publishing,1896.

One of the foremost local architectural firms at the turn of the century, Barnett, Haynes and Barnett were responsible for many major buildings in St. Louis.

Bradshaw, Preston. The Work of Preston J. Bradshaw, Architect, St. Louis, Missouri. 1924.

Preston Bradshaw was a prominent St. Louis architect from the beginning of the 20th century until World War II. He was particularly important as the architect who designed a good portion of the hotels and apartment buildings constructed in the 1920's. Among the more familiar works by Bradshaw are: The Chase, Mayfair, Coronado and Melborne Jesuit Hall Hotels.

"George I. Barnett, Pioneer Architect of the West," Western Architect, February, 1912, Vol. 18, No. 2.

George Barnett was premier architect in St. Louis during the middle 19th century. Barnett was trained in England and Scotland. Much of his St. Louis work was for Henry Shaw. However, he played a majorrole in such public buildings as the Old Courthouse.

Ittner, Marie Anderson. William Ittner: His Service to American School Architecture. St. Louis: Marie Anderson Ittner, 1941.

This work discusses the history of the St. Louis architect who revolutionized school architecture in the United States during the first half of the 20th century.

Kennedy, Roger, "Long Dark Corridors: Harvey Ellis," Prairie School Review, 1968, nos. 1-2, 5-39.

Harvey Ellis was an illustrator for architects late in the 19th century, but likely was responsible for many designs for which he never received credit. He was the designer of the Compton Hill Water Tower and greatly respected. This article explores this important but shadowy figure in St. Louis' past.

LaBeaume Louis, Photographs and Drawings of the Most RecentWorks of LaBeaume and Klein, Architects. New York: Architectural Catalog Co.1927.

This prominent St. Louis firm designed many important buildings in the pre-World War II period. Among the most important is the Kiel Opera House and Auditorium.

A Monograph of the Works of Maritz and Young. Gary Fitzgerald, Ed., St. Louis: Blackwell-Weilandy, 1930.

Maritz and Young were a prolific St. Louis firm of the middle 20thcentury. They were important as house designers.

Savage, Charles, Architecture of the Private Streets of St. Louis: The Architects and the Houses They Designed. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1987.

The "private" streets of St. Louis make it distinct from other American cities. This work outlines the architecture and architects of these Victorian enclaves.


Bryan, John Albury, Lafayette Square. St. Louis: Lafayette Square Press, 1962.

Hunter, Julius, Kingsbury Place. St. Louis: The C.V.. Moseby Co., 1982.

Hunter, Julius, Westmoreland and Portland Places: The History and Architecture of America’s Premier Private-Streets, 1888-1988. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1988.

Porter, Jane Molloy and Toft, Carolyn Hewes, Compton Heights. St. Louis: Landmarks Association, 1984.

These four works deal specifically with different wealthy subdivisions built in St. Louis from the middle 19th, until the early 20th century. Some are more detailed than others.

Carolyn Hewes Toft, Executive Director of the Landmarks Association, was the editor of a series of booklets on St. Louis neighborhoods, written during the middle 1970's. Produced in conjunction with the Social Science Institute of Washington University, these works detail both the ethnic, cultural and physical history of selected neighborhoods.

Urban Oasis. The Parkview Book Committee, St. Louis: Boar's Head Press, 1977.

Norbury Wayman, while on the staff of the Community Development Agency during the early 1890’s, wrote a series of profiles of City neighborhoods titled The History of St. Louis Neighborhoods. These informative booklets provide a logical explanation of the development of each neighborhood.


Bryan, John Albury, Missouri's Contribution to America’s Architecture. St. Louis: St. Louis Architectural Club, 1928.

Although this work does not deal exclusively with St. Louis, it is an invaluable resource. The first effort to catalogue St. Louis' built history, this book contains many photographs of structures since demolished or altered.

Lowic, Lawrence, The Architectural Heritage of St. Louis, 18031891, From the Louisiana Purchase to the Wainwright Building. St. Louis: Washington University Gallery of Art, 1982.

Lowic’s work is a vital history because it discusses important St. Louis buildings that have been demolished. The compact, readable book covers all kinds of buildings: houses, churches, government buildings and offices, in the period before the Waingwright building permanently changed office building construction in the city.

McCue., George, The Building Art In St. Louis: Two Centuries. St. Louis: American Institute of Architects, 1967.

George McCue, the longtime architecture critic of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, wrote this indispensable catalogue of St. Louis landmarks for the American Institute of Architects. Later editions have dealt less with the City's historic structures.


Marshall, Howard Wright, Folk Architecture in Little Dixie: A Regional Culture in Missouri. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1981.

This work is written about a rural section of Missouri between St. Charles and Hannibal. It is useful in understanding vernacular structures built in 19th century St. Louis, many of which still survive today, tucked in between later urban buildings.

Peterson, Charles, Colonial St. Louis, Making a Creole Capital. St. Louis: Missouri Historical Society, 1949.

Charles Peterson has been a leading architectural historian for many years. This book covers all aspects of the development of St. Louis as a French colonial settlement before the Louisiana Purchase in 1804.

van Ravensway, Charles, The Arts and Architecture of German Settlements in Missouri: Survey of a Vanishing Culture. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1977.

German culture has had a marked effect on the built environment of both St. Louis and Missouri. German immigrants during the middle 19th century brought with them specific construction methods and building types. While van Ravensway's work does not deal with St. Louis specifically, similar buildings of German design can also be found in St. Louis, particularly in Carondelet.


Bagely, Mary, The Front Row: Missouri's Grand Theaters. St. Louis: Gateway Publications, 1984.

The construction of large-scale theaters reached a peak with the development of the "movie palace," in the first quarter of the 20th century. Although this book discusses theater types to the present, its main focus is large theaters like those of Midtown and downtown, and smaller neighborhood theaters.

Dosch Donald, The Old Courthouse: Americans Build a Forum on the Frontier. St. Louis: Jefferson National Expansion Historical Association, 1979.

The construction of the Old Courthouse, including the first building on the site as well as the building that stands today, are described in this book.



There are no buildings still standing in St. Louis constructed by the original Native American inhabitants: all buildings in the city were created by immigrants who came here from somewhere else. The following works will help in understanding the important national architects and builders who influenced design and construction in St. Louis. This listing is arranged by architect in chronological order.


Bluestone, Daniel, "Civic and Aesthetic Reserve: Ammi Burnham Young's 1850's Federal Custom House Designs," Winterthur Portfolio. Summer/Autumn, 1990, pp.131-156.

Ammi Burnham Young was the main architect for the United States government during the middle 19th century. He standardized the design of Custom Houses around the country, including the one built in St. Louis, which was eventually replaced by the current Old Post Office.

Stein, Susan, ed., The Architecture of Richard Morris Hunt. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986.

Richard Morris Hunt practiced architecture in the United States from the 1850's until the 1890's. The first American trained architect at the French Academy in Paris, Hunt had a strong impact on the future of American architecture through his own buildings, and through training of numerous architects who went on to prominent careers.

Wodenhouse, Lawrence, "Alfred B. Mullett and His French Style Government Buildings," Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (JSAH), March, 1972 22-37.

Alfred Mullett replaced Ammi Young as the Federal Government's main architect. It was Mullet who changed the design format of the United States Custom Houses around the United States, of which the Old Post Office in St. Louis is one of the few still standing.

Weisman, Winston, "The Commercial Architecture of George B. Post," JSAH, October 1972, 176-203.

George Post was a prominent New York architect in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He designed the Gateway Hotel, in downtown St. Louis.

Hitchcock, Henry-Russell, The Architecture of H.H. Richardson and His Times. Reprinted ed., Cambridge: MIT Press, 1966.

Ochsner, Jeffrey Karl, H.H. Richardson: The Complete Architectural Works. Cambridge: M1T Press, 1982.

Henry Hobson Richardson was a Boston architect working from the end of the Civil War until the middle 1880's. Although he died in his 50's, Richardson was the most important architect of his day. Richardson's designs had a strong personal style and he is probably the first American architect to have a style named for him - Richardsonian Romanesque. Richardson designed three houses in St. Louis; two have been demolished and the other altered: His designs were very popular, and numerous commercial and residential buildings by local firms in the Richardsonian style still stand.

Stebbins, Theodore "Richardson and Trinity Church: The Evolution of a Building," JSAH, December 1968, 291-298.

The Second Presbyterian Church in the Central West End is directly based on Richardson's Trinity Church in Boston. Many other St. Louis church architects were greatly influenced by his style.

Holden, Wheaton, "The Peabody Touch: Peabody and Stearns of Boston, 1870-1917," JSAH, May, 1983, 114-131.

Peabody and Stearns was also a Boston architectural firm, dating from the last quarter of the 19th century. Although they were not as prominent as Daniel Burnham, Louis Sullivan or Richardson, they were responsible for many St. Louis buildings. Besides numerous large houses in the City's private streets, Peabody and Stearns also designed the

Security Building downtown.

Himes, Thomas, Burnham of Chicago: Architect and Planner.New York: Oxford University Press, 1974.

Daniel Burnham was one of a group of prominent Chicago architects, which also included Dankmar Alder and Louis Sullivan, among others. Burnham is notable as both an architect and city planner. With his partner, John Wellborne Root, Burnham created many notable tall office structures. Although none were built in St. Louis Burnham and Root did design a number of houses in the City, all of which apparently have been demolished. Burnham's city plans for Chicago, Washington, D.C. and San Francisco likely influenced 20th century urban planning in St. Louis.

Wiesman, Winston, "Philadelphia Functionalism and Sullivan," JSAH , March, 1961, 3-19.

Menocal Narciso, Architecture as Nature: The Transcendentalist ideas of Louis Sullivan.Madison: University of Wisconsin 1981.

Morrison, Hugh, Louis Sullivan: Prophet of Modern Architecture. New York W.W. Norton, 1935.

Louis Sullivan dramatically changed the design of the skyscraper, both nationally and in St. Louis. Sullivan's Wainwright and Union Trust Buildings, as well as the St. Nicholas Hotel, had a marked impact on St. Louis architecture. Sullivan's career began in the office of Philadelphia architect Frank Furness.

Elstein Rochelle, "The Architecture of Dankmar Adler," JSAH December, 1967, 243-249.

Gregerson, Charles, Dankmar Adler: His Theaters and Auditoriums. Athens: Ohio University Press., 1990.

Dankmar Adler is the less prominent half of the firm Adler and Sullivan. His importance to the partnership has been under-appreciated, considering his engineering skills.

Baldwin, Charles, Stanford White. reprint ed., New York: Da Capo, 1971. Roth, Leland, McKim, Mead and White, Architects. New York Harper and Row, 1983.

McKim, Mead and White was the most prominent architecture firm in the United States, from the 1890's through the early teens. They were known for dramatic public building, most notably the Boston Public Library, and for the popular revival of Colonial Revival style houses at the turn of the century. Although they designed no buildings in St. Louis, their work had an major impact on architects here, and across the country.


Hitchcock, Henry Russell, In the Nature of Materials: The Buildings of Frank Lloyd Wright, 1887-1941. New York Duell, Sloan and Pearce. Hoffman, Donald, Frank Lloyd Wright's Robie House. New York: Dover, 1984.

The most revered architect in American history is Frank Lloyd Wright, who designed buildings from the 1890's through the 1950's. Wright did most of his work in the Chicago. Known as the father of the "Prairie" Style, Wright is revered more for his design philosophy than the popularity of his houses. Prairie Style design never was widely popular in St. Louis, although Prairie style details appear on many early 20th century residences.

O'Gorman, James, Three American Architects: Richardson, Sullivan and Wright, 1865 - 1913. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

The design relationship passed down from Richardson to Sullivan toWright is explored in this work.

Zukowski, John ed., Meis Reconsidered: His Career, Legacy and Disciples. New York: Rizzoli, 1986.

Ludwig Meis van der Rohe was an extremely influential architect during the middle period of the 20th century. After he immigrated to the United States at the end of World War II, Meis van der Rohe permanently changed the picture of America's downtowns. His designs were of glass and steel in basic, geometric forms.

Temko, Allan, Eero Saarinen. New York: George Braziller, 1962.

Eero Saarmen was a prominent Finnish architect during the middle part of the 20th century. The son of Eero Saarinen who was also a world renowned architect, Eero designed many buildings that becamehallmarks of modern design, including modern architectures’ monument to itself, the Gateway Arch.

Wiseman, Carl, I.M. Pei: A Profile in American Architecture. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1990.

I.M. Pei is one of the most famous architects of the present. He created a new wing at the Louve in Paris, the National Gallery of Art in Washington, and the Rock 'N Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland. Less prominent among his works is the control tower at Lambert Airport, in St. Louis.


Technological advances, new architectural styles, and building types developed in other places and came to be used in St. Louis These works document the evolution of building technology and architectural styles around the country.


Glassie, Henry, Pattern in the Material Folk Culture of the Eastern United States. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1968.

Kniffen, Fred, "Folk Housing: The Key to Diffusion" Annals of the Association of American Geographers, December,1965, 549 - 577.

Vlach, John Michael, "The Shotgun House: An African Architectural Legacy," Dell Upton and John Michael Vlach eds., Common Places, Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1986, 58-78.

The westward movement of people across the United States was characterized by the continued use of building techniques brought from Europe, Africa and the Caribbean. The three works document tile building methods utilized by settlers, who had brought them from the east.

Tishler, William, "Fachwerk Construction in the German Settlements of Wisconsin," Winterthur Portfolio, Winter, 1986, 275-292.

Fachwerk type houses are built with a combination of brick and wood timbers. This was a particularly popular house type with German immigrants to St. Louis during the middle 19th century.

Weaver, William Woys, "The Pennsylvania German House," Winterthur Portfolio, Winter, 1986, 243-264.

German immigrants to St. Louis often came through Pennsylvania. This article discusses buildings that were commonly built by Germans as they spread west.

McKee, Harley J., Introduction to Early American Masonry; Stone, Brick, Mortar and Plaster. Washington, D.C.: National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1973.

The process of building with early American masonry, before the coming of industrialization revolution is explained in this article.

Sprague, Paul E., "The Origin of Balloon Framing," JSAH, December, 1991, 311-319.

Although the balloon frame was not widely used in St. Louis, there are buildings in the City that are built by this efficient, inexpensive process, that revolutionized house construction within the U.S. during the late 19th century.

Darnell, Margaretta jean, Innovations in American Prefabricated Housing: 1860-1890," JSAH, March 1972, 51-55.

Today pre-fabricated houses are a staple of development in cities and outlying areas. These inexpensive houses are constructed in large sections, and shipped to the job site for assembly. Pre-fabrication is nothing new, as shown in this work about the late 19th century.

Condit, Carl, American Building Art: Twentieth Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 1961.

The 20th century witnessed continual change in the material and method of construction of American buildings. This work delineates these changes.

Brugeman, Robert, "Central Heating and Forced Ventilation Origins and Effects on Architectural Design," JSAH, October, 1978, 143-160.

A major impact on 20th century buildings has been forced air, and centralized heating systems. This work explores the impact of these innovations on building design.


Andrews, Andrea, "The Baltimore School Building Program, 1870-1900: A Study of Urban Reform," Maryland Historical Magazine, Fall 1975, 206-274.

School building was a major focus of city governments during the 19th and early 20th centuries. This work is included in order compare the way Baltimore, another major city, handled school construction during the last quarter of the 19th century.

Bobinski, George, Carnegie Libraries: Their History and Impact on American Public Library Development. Chicago: American Public Library Association, 1969.

Carnegie Libraries were one of the most recognizable monumental buildings in large cities and small towns at the turn of the 20th century. Several Carnegie-funded libraries were built in St. Louis; the downtown branch resulted from the largest Carnegie grant ever given.

Geist, Johann Friedrich, Arcades: The History of a Building Type. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1983.

Arcades were a popular commercial building type in the United States from the early 19th through the early 20th century. They usually contain two or more levels of shops with a mezzanine. They can be seen as the precursor to the modern shopping mall. The only arcade in St. Louis is aptly called the Arcade Building.

Meeks, Caroll L.V., The Railroad Station: An Architectural History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1956.

Railroad stations were some of the largest buildings of their day. Their design was carefully considered, as it provided a visitor's first impression of a city or town.

Merritt, Russell "Nickelodeon Theaters 1905-1914: Building an Audience for the Movies " in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry. Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1979, 59-79.

Nickelodeon theaters are a specialized building type that was created at the beginning of the 20th century. These theaters were usually small storefronts. Early motion pictures, and small time vaudeville acts were performed at nickelodeons.

Wagg, Susan, Money Matters: A Critical Look at Bank Architecture. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990.

Banks also are an easily recognized, large institutional building type, be it in small towns or large cities.

Wilson Jr., Samuel, "Religious Architecture in French Colonial Louisiana," Winterthur Portfolio, 1973, 63-106.

Religious buildings were seen as some of the most important buildings in the colonial period . Although this work concentrates on Louisiana, and St. Louis never saw the grand church construction of New Orleans, this is an important aspect of French colonial culture.

Zurier, Rebecca, The American Firehouse: An Architectural and Social History. New York: Abbeville Press, 1982.

In cities such as St. Louis, early firehouses were dramatic structures built and operated by volunteer companies. By the late 19th century, the firehouse was operated by professionals. Local government, who then built the firehouses, often designed them with impressive, masculine features, to depict civic resolve and strength.


Gowans, Alan, The Comfortable House: North American Suburban Architecture, 1890-1930. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1986.

The book discusses house design from the middle 19th century, to the early 20th, a period in which the detached house slowly became the "ideal" living environment for the American family.

Jandhl, H. Ward, and Stevenson, Katherine Cole, Houses By Mail: A Guide to Houses from Sears, Roebuck and Company. Washington: Preservation Press, 1986.

It was not unusual at the turn of the century to order a house from one of a number of chain store catalogues. One of the most popular was from Sears-Roebuck. There are probably numerous "Sears" houses around St. Louis that have not been identified.

Kihistedt, Folke, "The Automobile and the Transformation of the American House, 1910-1935," Michigan Quarterly Review, Fall-Winter, 1981.

The automobile has dramatically changed the way we live. This work explores the ways it has influenced the development of the house.

Lancaster, Clay, The American Bungalow, 1880-1930. New York: Aberville Press, 1985. Lancaster, Clay, The American Bungalow 1880-1930. New York: Aberville Press, 1985.

Bungalows were extremely popular houses nationally, during the first quarter of the 20th century. They were seen as efficient, and a break from the showy houses of the Victorian period.

McMurray, Sally, "City Parlor, Country Sitting Room: Rural Vernacular Design and the American Parlor, 1840-1900," Winterthur Portfolio, Winter, 1985, 261-280.

This work is included because there were numerous houses built when areas of St. Louis City were still rural. Eventually these areas were enveloped by the City as it expanded west from the riverfront.


There has always been a relationship between the design of buildings and social/cultural trends in society. These trends occasionally began in St. Louis, but more often came to St. Louis from other places. The works cited will provide an in-depth analysis of this trend.


Bauman, John, "Public Housing in the Depression: Slum Reform in Philadelphia Neighborhoods in the 1930's," in William Cuttler and Howard Gillete, eds., The Divided Metropolis: Social and SpatialDimensions of Philadelphia, 1800-1975. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1980.

The creation of large scale public housing has been hotly debated in the United States from the depression to the present. This work attempts to understand various opinions about public housing, and how those views shaped early public housing.


Duffy, Francis, "Office Buildings and Organizational Change," in Anthony King, ed., Buildings and Society: Essavs on the Social Development of the Built Environment, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1980, 256-280.

Gibbs, Kenneth Turney, Business Architectural Imagery in America, 1870-1930, Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1984.

The two works deal with the design of the office building, beginning in the middle 19th century. Office buildings were places or great social change late in the 19th century.


Gomery, Douglas, Shared Pleasures: A History of Movie Presentation in the United States. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1992.

During the 20th century, motion pictures became a staple of how America spent its leisure time. This book chronicles changes in the movie theater.


Fusch, Richard and Ford, Larry, "Architecture and the Geography of the American City," Geographical Review, July, 1983, 324-340.

Stamper, John W., Chicago’s North Michigan Avenue: Planning and Development, 1900-1930. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

Willis, Carol, "Zoning and Zeitgeist: The Skyscraper City in the 1920's," JSAH, March, 1986, 47-59.

These three works deal with the changes in major cities, such as St. Louis, in the first quarter of the 20th century. This was an era characterized by an active private sector, which increased the scale of urban construction, and active governments, who sought to control urban development through zoning and other planning tools.

Preservation Plan Volume 1: A Catalogue of Property Types

A helpful tool to understanding St. Louis history and buildings is Volume 1 of the Preservation Plan. The document has two parts: the first consists of essays about the history of St. Louis. Topics include: St. Louis and the American West, Transportation, Business, Commerce and Industry; The Relationship Between People and Government, Community Planning, Cultural Life, The African-American Experience, The Immigrant Experience, Religious Life and Architecture.

The second half of Volume 1 divides the history of buildings in St. Louis into the French Period, 1764-1819, The Walking City, 1820-1869, The Victorian City, 1870-1900, and The World's Fair City, 1901-1940. Within each period buildings are categorized by type (residential, commercial, religious and government, etc.) and style.

The document is available without charge at the Heritage and Urban Design Division, whose offices are at the Community Development Agency at 330 N. 5th Street


These works explain techniques in preserving the character of historic buildings, particularly the maintenance and rehabilitation of particular interior and exterior building elements.

Fielden, Bernard, Conservation of Historic Buildings. Oxford: Butterworth-Heineman Ltd., 1994.

Fitch, James Marston, Historic Preservation: Curatorial Management of the Built World. New York: McGraw Hill, 1982.

Grimmer, Anne E., Keeping It Clean: Removing Exterior Dirt, Paint, Stains and Graffiti From Historic Masonry Buildings. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National ParkService, Technical Preservation Services, 1988.

Leatherbarrow, David and Mostafavi, Mohasen, On Weathering: The Life of a Building in Time. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1993.

London, Mark, Respectful Rehabilitation, Masonry: How to Care for Brick and Stone. Washington, D.C.: Preservation Press, 1982.

Matero F.T., and Weaver, Martin, Conserving Buildings: A Guide to Techniques and Materials. New York: John Wiley and Sons.,1993.

New York Landmarks Conservancy, Repairing Old and Historic Windows: A Manual for Homeowners and Architects. Washington, D.C.: National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1992.

Nelson, Carl J., Protecting the Past from Natural Disasters. Washington, D.C.: Preservation Press, 1991.

The Old House Journal Compendium. Carolyn Flaherty and Clem Labine, Editors, Woodstock, N.Y.: Overlook Press, 1983.

Respectful Rehabilitation: Answers to Questions About Old Buildings. Washington, D.C.: The Preservation Press, 1982.

Timmons, Sharon, Preservation and Conservation: Principles and Practices. Washington, D.C.: Preservation Press, 1976.


New construction in areas with many historic structures is a sign of the continued vibrancy of ever-changing urban neighborhoods. New buildings, and additions to historic structures, however, should be similar in size to neighboring buildings, and should not dominate the older buildings. The following three works provide ideas and guidance to the proper development of new construction in historic areas.

National Trust for Historic Preservation, Old and New Architecture: Design Relationship, Washington, D.C.: Preservation Press, 1980.

Shopsin, William, Restoring Old Buildings for Contemporary Uses, New York: Whitney Library of Design, 1992.

Smeallie, Peter H., and Smith, Peter H., New Construction for Old Buildings: A Design Sourcebook for Architects and Preservationists, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1990.



Since the early 20th century, governments have been taking steps to protect important buildings. At the same time, they seek to encourage development, often with very negative effects on the historic environment. Some of these works detail the history of governmental regulation of historic buildings, while others provide information about the status of current government regulations.


Advisory Council on Historic Preservation. The National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, An Assessment of Its Implementation Over Twenty Years. Washington, D.C.: Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, 1986.

Albright, Horace M. The Birth of the National Park Service: The Founding Years, 1913-1933. Salt Lake City: Howe Brothers, 1985.

Gale, Dennis, "The impact of Historic District Designation in Washington, D.C., Occasional Paper Number 6," Washington, D.C.: Center for Washington Area Studies, George Washington University, 1989.


Barnett, Jonathan, Urban Design as Public Policy. New York: Architectural Record Books, 1974..

Interpreting the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation. Washington D.C.: National Park Service, Preservation Assistance Division,Technical Preservation Services, 1982.


For many years residents of communities and neighborhoods have been developing strategies for self-renewal. The works cited in this section will help those in our neighborhoods who desire information on ways they can help to preserve their communities.

Adler, Leopold, II and Kidney, Walter C., and Ziegler, Arthur P, Jr., Revolving Funds for Historic Preservation, A Manual for Practice. Pittsburgh: Ober Park Associates, Inc., 1975.

Binder, Gordon, and Myers, Phyllis, Neighborhood Conservation: Lessons from Three Cities. Washington, D.C.: The Conservation Foundation, 1977.


Since World War 11, commercial areas with large stocks of historic structures have generally been in an uphill battle to remain viable. There have been numerous responses to this challenge, involving both government-based and community-based development. These works will explicate the numerous ways local commercial districts have sought to reinvent themselves.

Adaptive Use. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Land Institute, 1978.

Longstreth, Richard, The Buildings of Mainstreet. Washington D.C.: Preservation Press, 1987.

McBee, Susanna, Downtown Development Handbook, 2nd Edition, Washington, D.C.: The Urban Land institute, 1992.

Miller, Ted, and Wagner, Richard, Revitalizing Downtown: 1976-1986. Washington, D.C.: National Trust For Historic Preservation, 1988.

Oldham, Sally, A Guide to Tax-Advantaxed Rehabilitation. Washington, D.C.: National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1986.

Revolving Loan Funds. National Council for Urban Economic Development, Washington, D.C., 1983.

Rypkema, Donovan, Market Analysis. Washington, D.C.: National Main Street Center, 1987.

Rypkema, Donovan, Rehabilitation and Pro Forma Analysis. Washington, D.C.: National Main Street Center, 1987.


Throughout its history, the growth of St. Louis and other cities has been portrayed in the form of many kinds of maps. Copies or reproductions of the following historic maps may be found in the Missouri Historical Society and the Mercantile Library; also consult the St. Louis Library, downtown branch, for Compton and Dry, Whipple and Sandborne copies.


There are a number of maps of St. Louis that show the town from its settlement by Pierre Laclede in 1764 through 1804, when the territory became part of the United States. Maps were created for Chouteau and Laclede at various times, showing the original street grid and the siting and method of construction of town buildings. There are also colonial maps showing the boundaries of the various common agricultural areas.


During these years St. Louis grew from a small settlement to the fourth largest city in the United States. Maps from this period illustrate this great expansion. There are numerous maps of land subdivisions in the former common fields. These maps were produced to show the division of property for sale. During the early and middle 19th century, before the rise of photography, illustrated "bird's-eye views" of the city were commonly produced. While most of these drawings do not provide much detail, Camille Dry's Pictorial St. Louis,

published in 1875, showed the City north of Gasconade Street and east of Kingshighway. These 110 plats are extremely detailed.

Specialty maps were also produced for railroad development or political subdivisions. These maps demonstrate the rate at which political boundaries and railroads were placed on the former rural landscape as the city expanded north, south and west. During the last quarter of the 19th century, the Whipple Company produced fire insurance maps which were designed to show an outline of all building footprints and lots in the areas surveyed. These maps provide information on the height of buildings, the material of which they were constructed and their addresses. By 1900 Whipple had produced maps for virtually the entire city.


There were few new kinds of maps produced during the 20th century. The content of the maps, however, changed, as the last remaining open areas of the City disappeared. Political maps continued to show changes in ward boundaries. The Sanborne Map Company became the dominant fire insurance map producer. They had editions for St. Louis in 1903 and 1932, as well as later. These maps provided the same kinds of information found on the Whipple Maps.

Of interest are maps produced about two of the biggest 20th century influences on the development of St. Louis. Maps of the Louisiana Purchase Exhibition (World's Fair) of 1904 showed the location of exhibits stretching from the middle of Forest Park to the present Big Bend Boulevard (Pennsylvania Avenue), in Clayton. Also, St. Louis was one of the first cities in the United States to utilize planning. The City Plan Commission created numerous maps to illustratevarious plans, like the Parkway Plan, showing public buildings along and around Market Street, and plans for the north and south riverfronts.


A great deal of information regarding the current state of St. Louis is availablein the form of maps. The Heritage and Urban Design Division has a large collection of maps generated by neighborhood surveys. These maps usually were created to establish an area's eligibility for local or National Register listing. There are maps for some neighborhoods that show the dates of the buildings constructed, and the architects or builders responsible for the designs. Further, the city has numerousmaps showing ward boundaries, redevelopment areas and other specialized study areas. Contact the Heritage and Urban Design Division at 330 N. 15th Street for further information.



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